Node 1b: NN (Arteminae + Modisiminae)

Molecular data
(Bruvo-Madaric et al 2005, Astrin et al. 2007; Dimitrov et al. 2013)

28S data suggested a close relationship of Physocyclus and Artema with Modisiminae in the study by Astrin et al. (2007) but not in the previous study by Bruvo-Madaric et al. (2005). However, even in that previous study, the total evidence approach (12S, 16S, CO1, 28S) resolved this group with high support. Dimitrov et al. (2013) found very weak support for this clade.