Node 3a: NN (all Arteminae except Artema)

Reduced epiandrous spigots
(Huber 2000)

The male gonopore in pholcids has usually either four epiandrous spigots
(see photos below) or none (two spigots in Smeringopina + Smeringopus only). Reduction from four to zero has apparently occurred at least twice independently: in Arteminae except Artema, and in Modisiminae.

ATT: check Holocneminus!

The plesiomorphic condition is a gonopore with (usually 4, 2-6) epiandrous spigots: