|Exposed tarsal organ
An exposed tarsal organ has evolved several times independently: in a subgroup of Arteminae, in Modisiminae, and in Buitinga kadogo (male only)
between ALE and
A large distance between ALE and PME (>0.55 x PME diameter) appears to be derived, but the exact eye limit is often difficult to see in the light microscope.
|Reduction of epiandrous spigots
||? Molecular data
(28S, total evidence: Bruvo-Madaric et al. 2005; 16S+CO1, 28S: Astrin et al. 2007; Dimitrov et al. 2013)
Molecular data strongly support Modisiminae, but the position of Priscula is not resolved by molecular data and Wugigarra has never been sequenced.