Node 4: Modisiminae

Exposed tarsal organ
(Huber 2000)

An exposed tarsal organ has evolved several times independently: in a subgroup of Arteminae, in Modisiminae, and in Buitinga kadogo (male only)
Large distance between ALE and PME
(Huber 2000)

A large distance between ALE and PME (>0.55 x PME diameter) appears to be derived, but the exact eye limit is often difficult to see in the light microscope.
Reduction of epiandrous spigots (Huber 2000)

? Molecular data
(28S, total evidence:
Bruvo-Madaric et al. 2005; 16S+CO1, 28S: Astrin et al. 2007; Dimitrov et al. 2013)

Molecular data strongly support Modisiminae, but the position of Priscula is not resolved by molecular data
and Wugigarra has never been sequenced.

The plesiomorphic conditions are: capsulate tarsal organ; ALE and PME close together; four epiandrous spigots: